From the perspective of food safety, fatty acid esters of glycidol as well as 2- and 3-Mono¬chloro¬propane¬diol (MCPD) are known to be undesired process induced contaminants that almost ubiquitously occur in refined edible oils and fats [1-3]. They can be generated for instance during oil refining or frying of foods. Since the occurrence of significant amounts of fatty acid ester bound 3-MCPD, 2-MCPD and the structurally related glycidyl esters in various edible oils was reported in 2006 [4], 2009 [5] and 2011 [6] several analytical methods for the determination of these compounds in oil matrices have been published and also validated [7-11]. In 2014 the European Food Safety Agency (EFSA) released a recommendation to all member states to monitor the presence of free and bound MCPD and glycidol in edible oils and fats and oil and fat containing foods [12]. In May 2016 EFSA released an opinion on the risks for human health related to the presence of MCPD and glycidol in foods and the CONTAM panel lowered the Tolerable Daily Intake of 3-MCPD from 2 µg/kgxbwxd to 0.8 µg/kgxbw [13].  In purpose of an estimation of exposure as well as tool for process optimisation and production control there is an obvious need for reliable analytical methods that cover this set of contaminants. This presentation intends to focus on the availability of analytical methods and their applicability & comparability in regard to the determination of MCPD- and glycidyl esters in edible oils and fats and oil & fat containing foods.

[1] J. Kuhlmann; March 2012; oral presentation. Analyse und Verbreitung von gebundenem Glycidol (2,3-Epoxi-1-propanol) &
monochlorierten Propandiolen (MCPD) in Lebensmitteln. Lebensmittelchemische Gesellschaft – Regionalverband Nord –Arbeitstagung 2012; Hanover – Germany. DOI:10.13140/RG.2.1.1939.8160;
[2] S. MacMahon, T.H. Begley, G.W. Diachenko ; Occurrence of 3-MCPD and glycidyl esters in edible oils in the United States,
Food Addit Contam. 2013, 30 (12), 2081-92.
[3] S. MacMahon (editor); Processing Contaminants in Edible Oils: MCPD and Glycidyl Esters, AOCS Press, Urbana Illinois, 1st
ed. 2015
[4] Z. Zelinkova, B. Svejkovska, J. Velisek, M. Dolezal: Fatty acid esters of 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol in edible oils. Food Addit
Contam. 2006, 23, 1290–1298.
[5] R. Weißhaar, R. Perz: Fatty acid esters of glycidol in refined fats and oils. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol. 2009, 112, 158-165.
[6] Kuhlmann J (2011). Determination of bound 2,3-epoxy-1-propanol (glycidol) and bound monochloropropanediol (MCPD) in refined oils. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 113, 335-344.
[7] Crews C, Chiodini A, Granvogl M., Hamlet C., Hrncirik K., Kuhlmann J., Lampen A., Scholz G., Weisshaar R, Wenzl T, Rao Jasti, P, Seefelder W (2012). Analytical approaches for MCPD esters and glycidyl esters in food and biological samples – a review and future perspectives.  Food Addit. Contam., 30, 11-45.
[8] DGF: DGF-Einheitsmethoden C-VI 18 (10). Standard Method C-VI 18 (10) Fatty-acid-bound 3- chloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) and 2,3-epoxipropane-1-ol (glycidol). Determination in oils and fats by GC/MS (Differential measurement). Deutsche Einheitsmethoden zur Untersuchung von Fetten, Fettprodukten, Tensiden und verwandten Stoffen. 2011.
[9-11] AOCS Official Methods Cd 29a,b,c-13; Approved 2013; Official Methods and Recommended Practices of the AOCS, 6th
Edn, 3rd printing, 2013–2014. Additions and Revisions.
[12] Commission recommendation of 10 September 2014 on the monitoring of the presence of 2 and 3-monochloropropane-1,2-
diol (2 and 3-MCPD), 2- and 3-MCPD fatty acid esters and glycidyl fatty acid esters in food. Official Journal of the European Union. (2014/661/EU).
[12] EFSA Journal 2016; 14(5): 4426


Jan Kuhlmann


Jan Kuhlmann studied chemistry at the University of Hamburg, Germany. 2008 he finished his doctoral thesis on method development and determination of anthropogenic organic contaminants, their transformation products and potentially biogenic organohalogen compounds in the aquatic environment. In 2005 he started his carrier at SGS Institute Fresenius in Berlin and since 2009 he became head of the chromatographic department at SGS Germany GmbH in Hamburg. His work focuses on analytical method development and the investigation of formation & occurrence of trace contaminants in foods and feeds. Dr. Kuhlmann is member of several expert and working groups related to this topic. Being also member of  DGF, ISO and DIN-subcommittees he works for the standardisation of analytical methods.  His work is represented in serveral lectures at international conferences and in a handful of peer-reviewed publications.